Personnel at the Center for Mind and Culture are currently engaged in numerous research projects related to the scientific study of religion.

Dimensions of Spirituality Project

Dimensions of Spirituality Project

The Dimensions of Spirituality Project analyzes two dozen subdimensions of experiences and practices that people refer to as “spiritual.” This project is an effort to firm up the meaning of “spirituality” and to uncover the commonalities and differences between individual spiritual styles.

The research team developed a new scale called The Dimensions of Spirituality Inventory (DSI), a quantitative translation and extension of qualitative research by Nancy Ammerman and others. The DSI demonstrates that “spirituality” is a complex but tractable concept, particularly in the scientific study of religion and in spirituality and health. The DSI also confirms Ammerman’s working hypothesis about the way people use the term “spirituality” and thus about the way they think of themselves as spiritual people. Years active: 2013–Present.

Key Personnel

Mass Automated Data Collection & Analysis Project

Mass Automated Data Collection & Analysis Project (MADCAP)

For this project, CMAC is building the largest, most flexible, most scalable, most accessible, and most analytically useful collection of data on religious and spiritual experiences (RSEs) ever. RSEs are a vital aspect of human life, giving people their existential bearings and helping people cultivate prized virtues. However, RSEs also have the potential to drive extreme and dangerous religious behaviors, oftentimes disclosing hidden and profoundly ambiguous aspects of our relationship with wider reality.

After synthesizing many different types of data related to RSEs, CMAC researchers will create a website to collect and hold the massive influx of information. Two difference research projects will then investigate and demonstrate the usefulness of the amassed data. After the MADCAP database is established, research teams from around the world will be able to devote renewed consideration to RSEs from every part and period of the cultural life of our species. Years active: 2014–Present.

Key Personnel

Modeling Religion in Norway

Modeling Religion in Norway (MODRN)

The goal of the MODRN project is to create leading-edge computer simulations of religious and social conflict in Norway. With our partners at the University of Agder, the MODRN team is using modeling systems that enable ‘virtual’ social experimentation. By integrating validated theories in the scientific study of religion and secularization into complex ‘causal architectures,’ we are creating simulations that will offer empirical grounds with which to evaluate policy proposals.

Those simulations are calibrated on massive Norwegian datasets and are built to interact with that data, allowing us to experimentally project into the future of a ‘virtual’ Norway. They include both micro- and macro-levels of society to best showcase how changes will occur. Experts in the fields of computer modeling, religious and secular diversification, and Norwegian public-policy are involved in guiding our simulations and interpreting the results.

This project is not only strengthening the collaboration between international networks of research but it is also developing a simulation platform that will be freely available to scholars and policy-makers, so they can test their ideas about the dynamics of conflict and change. The MODRN models will provide a clear and concrete platform into understanding complex societal relations and ultimately enable us to have a more informed public debate.

The MODRN research team recently traveled to Lesbos, Greece, for a workshop that sought to understand insights into intricate political realities. Developing artificial intelligence models, the team looked at the migration of peoples, from their original displacement through long-term processes of acculturation. This work enables researchers to envision theories in a concrete way, better advising our policies. In partnership with the University of Agder and VMASC.

Modeling Religion in Norway (MODRN) upcoming workshop in Lesvos Greece from Jenn Lindsay on Vimeo.

Key Personnel


Shults, F. LeRon, Justin Lane, Saikou Diallo, Wesley J. Wildman, and Ross Gore, “Modeling Terror Management Theory: Computer Simulations of the Impact of Mortality Salience on Religiosity,” Religion, Brain & Behavior 7/3 (2017): 1–24.

Institute for the Bio-Cultural Study of Religion

Institue for the Bio-Cultural Study of Religion (IBCSR)

The Institute for the Bio-Cultural Study of Religion (IBCSR) is embedded within the Center for Mind and Culture (CMAC). It serves as a membership organization for the journal Religion, Brain & Behavior. Individuals can sign up on IBCSR’s website to receive the free, monthly IBCSR Research Review containing each month’s most relevant publications on the biocultural study of religion. Further, IBCSR’s outreach site at communicates scientific research in religion to a general audience. The ScienceOnReligion blog within hosts discussions and opinion pieces.

Global Religion Demography Project

Global Religion Demography Project (GRDP)

This project takes seriously all variables of religious change to develop better demographic projects for every religion in every country of the world. By utilizing big theory, we’ve developed a more comprehensive approach than existing researchers to understanding the role of religion in the modern world. The Project breaks methodological barriers by using computer modeling and simulation to study religion and policy in the contemporary world. These are highly generative methods that provide insight into some of the world’s most pressing problems: Where in the world is there potential for religious violence? How do changes in religious adherence impact society and social change? How might the religious make-up of countries and regions alter government policy and international relations? The Global Religion Demography Project aims to answer these, and other, pressing questions related to public policy.


Modeling Religion Project

Modeling Religion Project (MRP)

The Modeling Religion Project (MRP) is an ambitious attempt to connect the sciences of modeling and simulation with the scientific study of religion (SSR). With generous funding from the John Templeton Foundation, the three years from July 1, 2015 through June 30, 2018 promise an exciting intensification of a new kind of research in the academic study of religion. The first goal of MRP is to produce a simulation development platform that will allow SSR scholars and students to create complex simulations with no programming. The second goal is to produce a series of simulations of the role of religion in key transformations of human civilization, such as the Agricultural Transition (c. 8000 BCE), the Axial Age (c. 800-200 BCE), and modernity (c. 1600-2100). The third goal is to explain the importance of modeling and simulation to the world of the academic study of religion.


Neurosciences and Religion Cognition Project

Neurosciences and Religion Cognition Project

The Neuroscience and Religious Cognition Project proposes to identify the alterations in neural systems in patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) that could account for previously observed reductions in religiosity and in fluent access to religious concepts. The project uses advances in functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) techniques, new psychophysical cognitive priming techniques, and classical “on-off” levodopa (LD) comparative techniques to identify brain system alterations linked with religious cognition changes in these patients. In addition, two doctoral students and one post-doctoral fellow are being trained in the scientific background and experimental techniques relevant to this project. The post-doc will receive advanced training in fcMRI analyses relevant to ‘religion and brain’ issues while the doctoral students will be integrated into all aspects of hypothesis testing procedures of the project. We believe our work with these patients will identify key sources of their deficits as well as illuminate fundamental issues in the neuroscience of religious beliefs, behaviors, and experiences.


Quantifying Religious Experience Project

Quantifying Religious Experience Project

IBCSR’s Quantifying Religious Experience Project (QRXP) develops methods for measuring the distinctive cognitive and emotional features of religious experiences. The purpose of this project is to furnish a basis for the comparison of religious and spiritual experiences across demographic groups (such as men and women) and across cultures. Such comparisons can be extremely important for an adequate interpretation of religious and spiritual experiences. QRXP is funded by the John Templeton Foundation, Boston University, and IBCSR. A rich de-identified dataset of narratives, phenomenological profiles, and expert ratings is available to researchers who wish to pursue their own analyses.


Cognitive Style and Religious Attitudes Project

Cognitive Style and Religious Attitudes Project

The Cognitive Style and Religious Attitudes Project is a collaboration between two doctoral students at Boston University, Jonathan Morgan and Connor Wood, as well as Dr. Ravi Iyer of the University of Southern California and doctoral student Thomas Talhelm of the University of Virginia. The objective of the project is to test a group of related hypotheses that make predictions about cognitive style, religious attitudes, and the local-cosmopolitan axis of psychological orientation. The team hopes that their research data, which will be gathered through online surveys at the website, will help shed light on how social, cultural, cognitive, and personality factors influence – and are influenced by – religious belief. The resulting publications will contribute to conversations in the scientific study of religion, political psychology, moral psychology, political science, and related fields.


Unbelief Project

The Unbelief Project

The rapid rise of the religious ‘nones,’ secularist activism, nonreligious movements such as ‘New Atheism,’ and policy debates around nonreligious inclusion have all fueled interest in and debate about so-called ‘unbelief.’ Unbelief is broadly conceived as unbelief in religious phenomena, the afterlife, and the ultimate purpose of life, but there is still a substantial lack of knowledge about its precise nature.

It remains uncertain what phenomena the loose notion of unbelief entails, which alternative worldviews (e.g. humanism) can ground unbeliefs, and whether and how unbeliefs vary across contexts and cultures. Without this foundational knowledge, future research on the causes and effects of unbelief will be severely limited. Progress in our scientific understanding in this area has been hampered by several obstacles, including the use of such vague terms as ‘unbelief’, ‘atheism’, and ‘secularism,’ all of which mean different things to different people and originate from the conceptual schemes of social actors, not social scientists.

The Unbelief Project is working to produce a stable understanding of unbelief by building a framework for classification and by developing a multi-dimensional instrument for measuring unbelief. These tools will provide future researchers with a robust working definition and allow them to adjust for naming preferences and social pressures. This study will enable us to analyze unbelief with regards to actual usage, individual differences in personality and cognition, ideological postures, cultural variations, economic circumstances and social settings. With a combination of reanalyzed data sets, new specialized ones, and public options, we are in the process of triangulating unbelief with several contrasts in mind:

  • self-identified unbelievers vs self-identified religious respondents;
  • unbelievers based on the content of belief and practice vs self-identified unbelievers;
  • participants in unbeliever websites vs general web participants;
  • neuro-typical vs neuro-atypical, including high-functioning autism;
  • college age vs others;
  • military vs civilian;
  • men vs women;
  • religious vs non-religious upbringing;
  • across personality types, cognitive styles, and types of spirituality;
  • across socio-economic levels;
  • across cultural contexts (including several Western settings, Turkey, West Africa).

Researchers at CMAC are combining data at many levels of complexity and keeping all types of analysis in the conversation in order to create rich interpretations and stable taxonomies. They are using an Across-Disciplines-Across-Cultures (ADAC) method, instruments such as the Multidimensional Religious Ideology scale and the Dimensions of Spirituality Inventory scale, and instant-feedback survey sites ( and to create new and validated datasets. Those datasets will enable us to render the resulting understanding of unbelief sensitive to a number of diverse variables, thus expanding the foundation for studies on unbelief and opening up a new realm of research. Years active: 2016–Present.


Relevant Publications & Presentations

Caldwell-Harris, C.L. 2012. Understanding atheism/non-belief as an expected individual-differences variable. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 2, 4-23.

Caldwell-Harris, C.L., Wilson, A., LoTempio, E., & Beit-Hallahmi, B. 2011. Exploring the atheist personality: Well-being, awe, and magical thinking in atheists, Buddhists, and Christians. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 14, 659-672.

Ayçiçeği-Dinn, A., Hocaoğlu, S., & Caldwell-Harris, C.L. 2015. Does Analytical Style Promote Irreligion? Not in a Culturally Constraining Environment. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Psychonomics Society, Chicago, IL.

Caldwell-Harris, C.L., Murphy, C.F., Velazquez, T., McNamara, P. 2011. Religious belief systems of persons with high functioning autism. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society, 3362-3366. Available from: